"God made the expanse, and it separated the water which was below the expanse from the water which was above the expanse. And it was so."
The distance between the earth and the firmament is the same as the distance between the firmament and the upper waters.
The accepted opinion is that there are 7 firmaments, named as follows:
- Vilon (The brightest of all and closes at night)
- Rakia (In it hang the sun, moon, stars and planets)
- Shechakim (source of mercy and where the manna is prepared for the worthy in the World to Come)
- Zevul (Guarded by the angel Gavriel, it contains the Upper Jerusalem and Supernatural Temple)
- Maon (Where myriads of Angels singes praises to Hashem all night long)
- Machon (where are located many chambers with doors and fires, evil clouds and dew, strong winds with hurricanes and tornadoes, and poisonous waters)
- Aravot (which contains life, peace, blessings and success, souls of the righteous unborn and those who successfully completed their physical journey, and good dew with which the dead will be resurrected).